Networking cables are used to connect one network device to other network devices or to connect two or more computers to share printer, scanner etc. Different types of network cables like Coaxial cable, Optical fiber cable, Twisted Pair cables are used depending on the network's topology, protocol and size. The devices can be separated by a few meters (e.g. via Ethernet) or nearly unlimited distances (e.g. via the interconnections of the Internet).
While wireless networks are much easier deployed when total throughput is not an issue, most permanent larger computer networks use cables to transfer signals from one point to another.
Twisted pair cabling is a form of wiring in which pairs of wires (the forward and return conductors of a single circuit) are twisted together for the purposes of canceling out electromagnetic interference (EMI) from other wire pairs and from external sources. This type of cable is used for home and corporate Ethernet networks. There are two major types of twisted pair cables: shielded, unshielded.
Fiber Optic Cable:
An optical fiber cable consists of a center glass core surrounded by several layers of protective material. The outer insulating jacket is made of Teflon or PVC to prevent interference. Optical fiber deployment is more expensive than copper but offers higher bandwidth and can cover longer distances. There are two major types of optical fiber cables: short-range multi-mode fiber and long-range single-mode fiber.
Coaxial lines confine the electromagnetic wave inside the cable, between the center conductor and the shield. The transmission of energy in the line occurs totally through the dielectric inside the cable between the conductors. Coaxial lines can therefore be bent and twisted (subject to limits) without negative effects, and they can be strapped to conductive supports without inducing unwanted currents in them.
The most common use for coaxial cables is for television and other signals with a bandwidth of several hundred megahertz to gigahertz. Although in most homes coaxial cables have been installed for transmission of TV signals, new technologies (such as the ITU-T G.hn standard) open the possibility of using home coaxial cable for high-speed home networking applications (Ethernet over coax).
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